Turn-Taking in Human Communicative Interaction

Turn-Taking in Human Communicative Interaction

作者:Holler, Judit
ISBN:9782889198252
语言:English
出版社:Frontiers Media SA
格式:Pdf
资源下载
此资源为免费资源,请先后下载

Keywords

face-to-face conversation; psychology; psychology of language; psycholinguists; turn-taking; language sciences; language; Frontiers in Psychology; Intonation (linguistics); Prosody (linguistics); Sign language; Stroke; Syntax; Utterance

Abstract

The core use of language is in face-to-face conversation. This is characterized by rapid turn-taking. This turn-taking poses a number central puzzles for the psychology of language. Consider, for example, that in large corpora the gap between turns is on the order of 100 to 300 ms, but the latencies involved in language production require minimally between 600ms (for a single word) or 1500 ms (for as simple sentence). This implies that participants in conversation are predicting the ends of the incoming turn and preparing in advance. But how is this done? What aspects of this prediction are done when? What happens when the prediction is wrong? What stops participants coming in too early? If the system is running on prediction, why is there consistently a mode of 100 to 300 ms in response time?

The timing puzzle raises further puzzles: it seems that comprehension must run parallel with the preparation for production, but it has been presumed that there are strict cognitive limitations on more than one central process running at a time. How is this bottleneck overcome? Far from being ‘easy’ as some psychologists have suggested, conversation may be one of the most demanding cognitive tasks in our everyday lives. Further questions naturally arise: how do children learn to master this demanding task, and what is the developmental trajectory in this domain?

Research shows that aspects of turn-taking such as its timing are remarkably stable across languages and cultures, but the word order of languages varies enormously. How then does prediction of the incoming turn work when the verb (often the informational nugget in a clause) is at the end? Conversely, how can production work fast enough in languages that have the verb at the beginning, thereby requiring early planning of the whole clause? What happens when one changes modality, as in sign languages — with the loss of channel constraints is turn-taking much freer? And what about face-to-face communication amongst hearing individuals — do gestures, gaze, and other body behaviors facilitate turn-taking? One can also ask the phylogenetic question: how did such a system evolve? There seem to be parallels (analogies) in duetting bird species, and in a variety of monkey species, but there is little evidence of anything like this among the great apes.

All this constitutes a neglected set of problems at the heart of the psychology of language and of the language sciences. This research topic welcomes contributions from right across the board, for example from psycholinguists, developmental psychologists, students of dialogue and conversation analysis, linguists interested in the use of language, phoneticians, corpus analysts and comparative ethologists or psychologists. We welcome contributions of all sorts, for example original research papers, opinion pieces, and reviews of work in subfields that may not be fully understood in other subfields.

资源下载此资源仅限注册用户下载,请先
资源下载
作者:Holler, Judit
ISBN:9782889198252
语言:English
出版社:Frontiers Media SA
格式:Pdf

如果您有任何问题,请随时与我们联系,谢谢。Turn-Taking in Human Communicative Interaction 内容均搜集于网络,本身不存储任何资源,如侵犯到您的权益,请提交反馈,我们将配合您第一时间删除。

0
封面图

评论0